- Middle Dnieper River region
- Galicia and Volhynia
- Carpathian Mountains and Subcarpathia
In the Cossack period the nobility dressed according to the prevalent fashion in Europe, in costumes of the Renaissance style, except for certain departures demanded by the severe climate (long overcoats and sheepskin jackets). The Cossack officers and common Cossacks adapted these clothes to military need (short caftan or zhupan, wide trousers or sharavary, and mantle or kyreia). The burghers to some extent imitated the fashions of the nobility and used imported cloth. Changes in peasant dress took place under the influence of Cossack dress, particularly in the Hetman state.
Later the nobility adopted European baroque fashions, while the burghers and peasants preserved those features of dress that had been created in the Cossack period. Yet, changes crept in, either in the form of dress (bodice, skirt, man's shirt without ruffles) or in the material (fur coat covered with woolen cloth). With the greater availability of factory-made fabrics in the second half of the 19th century the fabrics from which folk costumes were made changed even more; yet, the general features of folk dress were preserved in the small towns and villagesuntil the First World War.
After the First World War urban clothing began to replace folk dress in the countryside because of its low price and the peasant's desire not to appear different from the townsfolk. This first occurred in rural areas close to towns and cities. In the 1930s a certain revival of folk dress became popular in Western Ukraine. Young people in the cities and countryside dressed up for festive occasions in the typical folk costume of the Poltava region or Kyiv region, which was popularized by the Ukrainian theater. At the same time the intelligentsia of Western Ukraine attempted to study and popularize the various regional folk costumes and borrowed folk elements to enrich the style of urban clothing. A similar tendency in central and eastern Ukraine led to the daily use of embroidered shirts and blouses and then to the stylization of urban clothing in imitation of folk costumes.
Today in Ukraine folk dress is rarely worn, even in the countryside, and is used mainly in stage performances. In a few areas—for example, in the forest belt of the Carpathian Mountains (Hutsul region)—the folk costume is worn only for festive occasions or for dressing the deceased. The rural inhabitants wear factory-made clothes, most often of poor quality. The urban population wears much better, more fashionable clothes.
The production of the textile industry and clothing industry is determined by the designs prepared by fashion centers in the oblast cities. Relative to the size of the population and its needs, the number of textile and clothing factories in Ukraine is rather low. Much of the clothing is still sewn to order. The price of clothing relative to wages earned is much higher in the Ukraine than in Western countries.
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